Shared sanitation research in Dar es salaam

Shared sanitation facilities are those used by two or more households. Shared sanitation facilities are excluded from the definition of 'improved sanitation' regardless of the service level. Improved sanitation facilities are defined as one that hygienically separates human excreta from human contact. WHO/UNICEF and Joint Monitoring Program (JMP) for water supply and sanitation defines improved sanitation as any one of the following toilet systems:
  • Flush toilet
  • Connection to a piped sewer system
  • Flush/pour-flush to a pit latrine
  • Ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine
  • Composting toilet
  • Some special cases
Sanitation facilities that are considered as unimproved are;
  •  Puplic or shared latrines
  • Flush/pour flush to elsewhere (not into a pit, septic tank or sewer)
  • Pit latrine without slab
  • Bucket latrine
  • No facility/bush/field
 The research was aimed at better defining the classification of a shared toilet - to provide guidance to the  WHO/UNICEF in regards to a recommendation on whether shared facilities should be reclassified depending on which type of toilet facility they were - as opposed to simply defining them all as unimproved. Research was performed in rural areas (kilombero district) and urban areas (Dar es salaam-Keko machungwa). Here are some photos from research work in Dar es salaam.
laboratory technician performing feacal coliform test  by using membrane filtration method. Samples were swabs from handles of latrines and sink .

Feacal coliforms colonies after culture in media

Shared sanitation research team in Dar es salaam celebrating after finishing sample collections.

Shared sanitation research team with Keko machungwa village chairman .